Srikanth R. Damera, Patrick S. Malone, Benson W. Stevens, Richard Klein, Silvio P. Eberhardt, Edward T. Auer, Lynne E. Bernstein and Maximilian Riesenhuber
Journal of Neuroscience 5 July 2023, 43 (27) 4984-4996; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1710-22.2023
It has been postulated that the brain is organized by “metamodal,” sensory-independent cortical modules capable of performing tasks (e.g., word recognition) in both “standard” and novel sensory modalities. Still, this theory has primarily been tested in sensory-deprived individuals, with mixed evidence in neurotypical subjects, thereby limiting its support as a general principle of brain organization. Critically, current theories of metamodal processing do not specify requirements for successful metamodal processing at the level of neural representations. Specification at this level may be particularly important in neurotypical individuals, where novel sensory modalities must interface with existing representations for the standard sense. Here we hypothesized that effective metamodal engagement of a cortical area requires congruence between stimulus representations in the standard and novel sensory modalities in that region. To test this, we first used fMRI to identify bilateral auditory speech representations. We then trained 20 human participants (12 female) to recognize vibrotactile versions of auditory words using one of two auditory-to-vibrotactile algorithms. The vocoded algorithm attempted to match the encoding scheme of auditory speech while the token-based algorithm did not. Crucially, using fMRI, we found that only in the vocoded group did trained-vibrotactile stimuli recruit speech representations in the superior temporal gyrus and lead to increased coupling between them and somatosensory areas. Our results advance our understanding of brain organization by providing new insight into unlocking the metamodal potential of the brain, thereby benefitting the design of novel sensory substitution devices that aim to tap into existing processing streams in the brain.
It has been proposed that the brain is organized by “metamodal,” sensory-independent modules specialized for performing certain tasks. This idea has inspired therapeutic applications, such as sensory substitution devices, for example, enabling blind individuals “to see” by transforming visual input into soundscapes. Yet, other studies have failed to demonstrate metamodal engagement. Here, we tested the hypothesis that metamodal engagement in neurotypical individuals requires matching the encoding schemes between stimuli from the novel and standard sensory modalities. We trained two groups of subjects to recognize words generated by one of two auditory-to-vibrotactile transformations. Critically, only vibrotactile stimuli that were matched to the neural encoding of auditory speech engaged auditory speech areas after training. This suggests that matching encoding schemes is critical to unlocking the brain’s metamodal potential.
The dominant view of brain organization revolves around cortical areas dedicated for processing information from specific sensory modalities. However, emerging evidence over the past two decades has led to the idea that cortical areas are defined by task-specific computations that are invariant to sensory modality (Pascual-Leone and Hamilton, 2001). Evidence for this comes from studies in sensory-deprived populations (Sadato et al., 1996; Lomber et al., 2010; Bola et al., 2017), which show that areas that traditionally perform unisensory processing can be recruited by stimuli from another sensory modality to perform the same task. This ability of a novel sensory modality stimuli to engage a cortical area the same way as the standard sensory modality stimulus is called metamodal engagement. Importantly, there is evidence (Renier et al., 2005, 2010; Amedi et al., 2007; Siuda-Krzywicka et al., 2016) for metamodal engagement of traditionally unisensory areas, even in neurotypical individuals, thereby opening the door for novel sensory modalities to recruit established sensory processing pathways. This idea has given rise to promising therapeutic applications, such as sensory substitution devices. These devices can, for instance, enable blind individuals to process visual information by translating camera input to sounds (Meijer, 1992; Bach-y-Rita and Kercel, 2003). Still, other studies (Fairhall et al., 2017; Twomey et al., 2017; Benetti et al., 2020; Mattioni et al., 2020; Vetter et al., 2020) failed to find or found less robust evidence of cross-modal engagement in neurotypical subjects. This calls into question the conditions under which a cortical area can be successfully recruited by stimuli from a novel sensory modality.
Current theories emphasize that metamodal engagement of a cortical area depends on a task-level correspondence regardless of the stimulus modality and the presence of task-relevant connectivity (Heimler et al., 2015). Thus, metamodal theories are specified at the level of computation (i.e., shared task) and implementation (i.e., sufficient connectivity), the first and third levels of Marr’s levels of analysis (Marr, 1982). However, consideration of these two levels alone cannot explain the failure of certain studies to find metamodal engagement. We argue that metamodal engagement depends on not just an abstract correspondence between standard and novel modality stimuli, but also on a correspondence between their encoding in the target area. This correspondence at the level of encoding corresponds to Marr’s second level, the algorithmic level. For instance, since auditory cortex in neurotypical adults is sensitive to the temporal dynamics of auditory speech (Yi et al., 2019; Penikis and Sanes, 2023), metamodal engagement of this area by novel modality stimuli depends on their ability to match the temporal dynamics of spoken words. Failure to do so may favor alternate learning mechanisms, such as paired associate learning (McClelland et al., 1995; Eichenbaum et al., 1996).
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that metamodal engagement of a brain area in neurotypical individuals depends on matching the encoding schemes between stimuli from the novel and standard sensory modalities. We used fMRI data from an independent auditory scan to identify target auditory speech areas for metamodal engagement in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG). We then built on prior behavioral studies to train two groups of neurotypical adults to recognize words using one of two auditory-to-vibrotactile (VT) sensory substitution algorithms. Critically, while both algorithms preserved behavioral word similarities, one encoding (“vocoded”) closely matched the temporal dynamics of auditory speech, whereas the other (“token-based”) did not. Our results show that, while subjects in both algorithm groups learned to accomplish the word recognition task equally well, only those trained on the similarity-preserving vocoded VT representation exhibited metamodal engagement of the bilateral STG. Consistent with these findings, only subjects in the vocoded VT group exhibited increased functional connectivity between the auditory and somatosensory cortex after training. These findings suggest that metamodal engagement of a cortical area in neurotypical adults depends not only on a correspondence between standard and novel modality stimuli at the task-level but also at the neural representational level.